C++ How to Program, 4/e


© 1992-2002. Deitel & Associates, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  

Welcome to ANSI/ISO Standard C++! At Deitel & Associates, we write college-level programming-language textbooks and professional books and work hard to keep our published books up-to-date with a steady flow of new editions. Writing C++ How to Program, Fourth Edition, (4/e for short), was a joy. This book and its support materials have everything instructors and students need for an informative, interesting, challenging and entertaining C++ educational experience. As the book goes to publication, it is compliant with the latest version of the ANSI/ISO C++ Standard (one of the most important worldwide standards for the computing community) and with object-oriented design using the latest version of the UML (Unified Modeling Language) from the Object Management Group (OMG). We tuned the writing, the pedagogy, our coding style, the book’s ancillary package and even added a substantial treatment of developing Internet- and Web-based applications. We have added a comprehensive Tour of the Book section to Chapter 1. This will help instructors, students and professionals get a sense of the rich coverage the book provides of C++ object-oriented programming, object-oriented design with the UML and generic programming. If you are evaluating the book, please read the Tour of the Book now in pages 44–56.

Whether you are an instructor, a student, an experienced professional or a novice programmer, this book has much to offer. C++ is a world-class programming language for developing industrial-strength, high-performance computer applications. We carefully audited the manuscript against the ANSI/ISO C++ standard document, which defines C++, and we were privileged to have as a reviewer Steve Clamage of Sun Microsystems who heads the ANSI J16 Committee responsible for evolving the C++ standard. As a result, the programs you create by studying this text should port easily to any ANSI/ISO-compliant compiler.

In this Preface, we overview C++ How to Program, 4/e’s comprehensive suite of educational materials that help instructors maximize their students’ C++ learning experience. We explain conventions we use, such as syntax coloring the code examples, "code washing" and highlighting important code segments to help focus students’ attention on the key concepts introduced in each chapter. We overview the new features of C++ How to Program, 4/e, including our early treatment of arrays and strings as objects, an enhanced treatment of object-oriented programming, Web-application development with CGI, the enhanced elevator-simulation object-oriented design (OOD) case study with the UML, and the extensive use of UML diagrams that have been upgraded to UML version 1.4 standards.

Prentice Hall has bundled Microsoft’s Visual C++® 6 Introductory Edition software with the text and offers a separate value-pack containing C++ How to Program, 4/e, with Metrowerks CodeWarrior for the Macintosh and Windows. We list several compilers that are available on the Web free for download. To further support novice programmers, we offer six of our new Dive-into™ Series publications that are available free for download at www.deitel.com. These materials explain how to compile, execute and debug C++ programs using various popular C++ development environments.

We overview the complete package of ancillary materials available to instructors and students using C++ How to Program, 4/e. These include an Instructor’s Resource CD with solutions to the book’s chapter exercises and a Test-Item File with hundreds of multiple-choice questions and answers. Additional instructor resources are available at the book’s Companion Web Site (www.prenhall.com/deitel), which includes a Syllabus Manager and customizable PowerPoint® Lecture Notes. Numerous support materials are available for students at the Companion Web Site, as well. For instructors who want to hold closed-lab sessions (or highly structured homework assignments), we provide the optional, for-sale manual, C++ in the Lab. This publication includes carefully constructed Prelab Activities, Lab Exercises and Postlab Activities.

This Preface also discusses The C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e, an interactive, multimedia CD-based version of the book. This learning aid provides audio "walkthroughs" of programs, animations of programs executing and hundreds of exercises and solutions. We describe how to order both the Cyber Classroom and The Complete C++ Training Course, 4/e, boxed product, which contains the Cyber Classroom and the textbook.

We discuss several Deitel™ e-learning initiatives, including an explanation of Deitel content available for the Blackboard, CourseCompass and WebCT Course Management Systems, each of which supports C++ How to Program, 4/e. Premium CourseCompass, which offers enhanced Deitel content based on The C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e, will be available in January 2003.

C++ How to Program, 4/e, was reviewed by 52 distinguished academics and industry professionals; we list their names and affiliations so you can get a sense of how carefully this book was scrutinized. The Preface concludes with information about the authors and about Deitel & Associates, Inc. As you read this book, if you have any questions, please send an e-mail to deitel@deitel.com; we will respond promptly. Please visit our Web site, www.deitel.com, regularly and be sure to sign up for the Deitel™ Buzz Online e-mail newsletter at www.deitel.com/newsletter/subscribe.html. We use the Web site and the newsletter to keep our readers current on all Deitel™ publications and services.

Features of C++ How to Program, Fourth Edition

This book contains many features including:

Full-Color Presentation

This book is in full color to show programs and their outputs as they typically would appear on a computer screen. We syntax color all the C++ code, as do many C++ integrated-development environments and code editors. This greatly improves code readability—an especially important goal, given that this book contains over 20,000 lines of code. Our syntax-coloring conventions are as follows:

comments appear in green
keywords appear in dark blue
errors appear in red
constants and literal values appear in light blue
all other code appears in black

Code Highlighting and User-Input Highlighting

We have added extensive code highlighting. In our code walkthroughs (at Deitel, we call these "writearounds"), we have eliminated most of the "redundant" code snippets that appeared inline in the text in the Third Edition. We kept them in the earliest portion of the book as a pedagogic device to help novices. We want the reader to see all new code features in context, so from Chapter 3 forward, our code walkthroughs simply refer to the line numbers of the new code segments inside complete source programs. To make it easier for readers to spot the featured segments, we have highlighted them in bright yellow. This feature also helps students review the material rapidly when preparing for exams or labs. We have also highlighted in our screen dialogs all user inputs to distinguish them from program outputs.

"Code Washing"

Code washing is our term for applying comments, using meaningful identifiers, applying indentation and using vertical spacing to separate meaningful program units. This process results in programs that are much more readable and self-documenting. We have done extensive "code washing" of all the source code programs in the text, the lab manual, the ancillaries and the Cyber Classroom.

Early Introduction of Standard Library string and vector Objects

Object-oriented programming languages generally offer the ability to create string and array objects by instantiating them from library classes or from programmer-defined classes. It is also important for students learning C++ to become familiar with C-style, pointer-based arrays and strings, because of the massive amount of C and early C++ legacy code they will encounter in industry. In C++ How to Program, 4/e, we show all three means of creating strings and arrays. In Chapters 4 and 5 we show the traditional, C-like pointer-based arrays and strings, respectively. In Chapter 8, Operator Overloading, we create our own user-defined classes Array and String. At the end of Chapter 8, we introduce library classes vector and string, which we explain in detail in Chapter 15 and Chapter 21, respectively. Through Chapter 8, we favor pointer-based arrays and strings; after Chapter 8, we favor the library classes. The Chapter 15 material on string could be taught at any point after Chapter 8. The Chapter 21 material on vector (and other aspects of the STL) could also reasonably be taught after Chapter 8, although we recommend covering Chapter 11, Templates, first.

Tuned Treatment of Object-Oriented Programming in Chapters 9 and 10

This is one of the most significant improvements in this new edition. We performed a high-precision upgrade to Chapters 9 and 10. The improvements make the material clearer and more accessible to students and professionals, especially those studying object-orientation for the first time.

Redesigned Pedagogy of Chapter 9, Object-Oriented Programming: Inheritance.

The new Chapter 9 carefully walks the reader through a five-example sequence that demonstrates private data, protected data and software reuse via inheritance. We begin by demonstrating a class with private data members and public member functions to manipulate that data. Next, we implement a second class with several additional capabilities. To do this, we duplicate much of the first example’s code. In our third example, we begin our discussion of inheritance and software reuse—we use the class from the first example as a base class and inherit its data and functionality into a new derived class. This example introduces the inheritance mechanism and demonstrates that a derived class cannot access its base class’s private data directly. This motivates our fourth example, in which we introduce protected data in the base class and demonstrate that the derived class can indeed access its base class’s protected data. The last example in the sequence demonstrates proper software engineering by defining the base class’s data as private and using the base class’s public member functions (that were inherited by the derived class) to manipulate the base class’s private data from the derived class. We follow the five-part introduction with a three-level class hierarchy that employs the software engineering techniques introduced earlier in the chapter. The chapter closes with a discussion of the three inheritance types supported by C++ and a general discussion of software engineering with inheritance.

Redesigned Pedagogy of Chapter 10, Object-Oriented Programming: Polymorphism.

The new Chapter 10 builds on the inheritance concepts presented in Chapter 9 and focuses on the relationships between classes in a class hierarchy. Chapter 10 uses a four-example sequence to present the powerful processing capabilities that these relationships enable. We begin with an example that illustrates the "is-a" relationship between a derived-class object and its base-class type. This relationship enables the derived-class object to be treated as an object of its base class. We show that we are able to aim a base-class pointer at a derived-class object and invoke the base-class’s functions on that object. In our second example, we demonstrate that the reverse is not true—a base-class object is not considered to be an object of its derived-class type—and we show that compiler errors occur if a program attempts to manipulate a base-class object in this manner. Our third example demonstrates that the only functions which can be invoked through a base-class pointer are those functions defined by the base class. The example shows that attempts to invoke derived-class-only functions result in error messages. The last example in the sequence introduces polymorphism with virtual functions, which enable a program to process objects of classes related by a class hierarchy as objects of their base-class type. When a virtual function is invoked via a base-class pointer (or reference), the derived-class-specific version of that function is invoked. The chapter continues with a case study on polymorphism in which we process an array of objects that all have a common abstract base class that contains the set of functions common to every class in the hierarchy. We follow this example with an in-depth discussion of how polymorphism works "under the hood." We conclude with a case study that demonstrates how a program that processes objects polymorphically can still perform type-specific processing by determining at execution time the type of the object currently being processed.

Web Applications Development with CGI

The new Chapter 16, Web Programming with CGI, has everything readers need to begin developing their own Web-based applications that will run on the Internet! Readers will learn how to build so-called n-tier applications, in which the functionality provided by each tier can be distributed to separate computers across the Internet or executed on the same computer. In particular, we build a three-tier online bookstore application. The bookstore's information is stored in the application’s data tier. In industrial-strength applications, the data tier is typically a database such as Oracle, Microsoft® SQL Server or MySQL. For simplicity, we use text files and employ the file-processing techniques of Chapter 14 to access these files. The user enters requests and receives responses at the application’s client tier, which is typically a computer running a Web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape®. Web browsers, of course, know how to communicate with Web sites throughout the Internet. The middle tier contains both a Web server and an application-specific C++ program (e.g., our bookstore application). The Web server communicates with the C++ program (and vice versa) via the CGI (Common Gateway Interface) protocol. We use the popular Apache HTTP server as our Web server, which is available free for download from www.apache.org. The Web server knows how to communicate with the client tier across the Internet using the HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). We discuss the crucial role of the Web server in Web programming and provide a simple example that requests a Web page from a Web server. We discuss CGI and how it allows a Web server to communicate with the top tier and CGI scripts (i.e., our C++ programs). We provide a simple example that gets the time and date from the server and renders it in a browser. In our forms-based examples we use buttons, password fields, check boxes and text fields. We present an example of an interactive portal for a travel company that displays airfares to various cities. Travel-club members can log in and view discounted airfares. We also discuss various methods of storing client-specific data, which include hidden fields (i.e., information stored in a Web page but not rendered by the Web browser) and cookies—small text files that the browser stores on the client’s machine. The chapter examples conclude with an e-business case study of an online bookstore that allows users to add books to an electronic shopping cart. This case study contains several CGI scripts that interact with one another to form a complete application. The online bookstore is password protected, so users first must log in to gain access.


The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) has declared HyperText Markup Language (HTML) to be a legacy technology that will undergo no further development. HTML is being replaced by the Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML)—an XML-based technology that rapidly is becoming the standard for describing Web content. We use XHTML in Chapter 16, Web Programming with CGI; Appendix E presents an XHTML introduction. If you are not familiar with XHTML, please read Appendix E before reading Chapter 16.

Unified Modeling Language™ (UML)

The Unified Modeling Language™ (UML) has become the preferred graphical modeling language for designing object-oriented systems. In C++ How to Program, Third Edition, we used the UML in optional sections only, and we used conventional flowchart segments and inheritance diagrams to reinforce the explanations. We have fully converted the diagrams in the book to be UML 1.4 compliant. In particular, we upgraded all the figures in the UML/OOD Elevator Simulation case study; we converted all the flowcharts in Chapter 2, Control Structures, to UML activity diagrams; and we converted all the inheritance diagrams in Chapters 9, 12, 14 and 22 to UML class diagrams.

This Fourth Edition carefully tunes the optional (but highly recommended) case study we present on object-oriented design using the UML. In the case study, we fully implement an elevator simulation. In the "Thinking About Objects" sections at the ends of Chapters 1–7 and 9, we present a carefully paced introduction to object-oriented design using the UML. We present a concise, simplified subset of the UML then guide the reader through a first design experience intended for the novice object-oriented designer/programmer. The case study is fully solved. It is not an exercise; rather, it is an end-to-end learning experience that concludes with a detailed walkthrough of the C++ code. In each of the first five chapters, we concentrate on the "conventional" methodology of structured programming, because the objects that we build will use these structured-program pieces. We conclude each chapter with a "Thinking About Objects" section, in which we present an introduction to object orientation using the UML. These "Thinking About Objects" sections help students develop an object-oriented way of thinking, so that they immediately can use the object-oriented programming concepts they begin learning in Chapter 6. In the first of these sections at the end of Chapter 1, we introduce basic concepts (i.e., "object think") and terminology (i.e., "object speak"). In the optional "Thinking About Objects" sections at the ends of Chapters 2–5, we consider more substantial issues, as we undertake a challenging problem with the techniques of object-oriented design (OOD). We analyze a typical problem statement that requires a system to be built, determine the objects needed to implement that system, determine the attributes these objects need to have, determine the behaviors these objects need to exhibit and specify how the objects need to interact with one another to meet the system requirements. We accomplish this even before we discuss how to write object-oriented C++ programs. In the "Thinking About Objects" sections at the ends of Chapters 6, 7 and 9, we build a C++ implementation of the object-oriented system we designed in the earlier chapters. This project enabled us to incorporate topics that we do not discuss in any other section of the book, including object interaction, an in-depth discussion of handles, the philosophy of using references vs. pointers and the use of forward declarations to avoid circular-include problems. This case study will help prepare students for the kinds of substantial projects they will encounter in industry. We employ a carefully developed, incremental object-oriented design process to produce a UML-based design for our elevator simulator. From this design, we produce a substantial working C++ implementation using key programming notions, including classes, objects, encapsulation, visibility, composition and inheritance.

More About the (Optional) Elevator Simulation Case Study

This case study was introduced in C++ How to Program, 3/e, and was carefully tuned for the Fourth Edition. We brought all the UML diagrams into compliance with version 1.4, we reorganized many of the diagrams to make them clearer, we code washed the complete C++ solution presented in the book, and we tuned the discussions for clarity and precision. The case study was submitted to a distinguished team of OOD/UML reviewers, including leaders in the field from Rational (the creators of the UML) and the Object Management Group (responsible for maintaining and evolving the UML).

In Chapter 2, we begin the first phase of the object-oriented design (OOD) for our elevator simulator—identifying the classes needed to implement the simulator. We also introduce the UML use case, class and object diagrams and the concepts of associations, multiplicity, composition, roles and links. In Chapter 3, we determine many of the class attributes needed to implement the elevator simulator. We also introduce the UML statechart and activity diagrams and the concepts of events and actions as they relate to these diagrams. In Chapter 4, we determine many of the operations (behaviors) of the classes in the elevator simulation. We also introduce the UML sequence diagram and the concept of messages sent between objects. In Chapter 5, we determine the collaboration (sets of interactions among objects in the system) needed to implement the elevator system and represent these interactions using the UML collaboration diagram. We also include a bibliography and a list of Internet and Web resources that contain the UML 1.4 specifications and other reference materials, general resources, tutorials, FAQs, articles, whitepapers and software. In Chapter 6, we use the UML class diagram developed in previous sections to outline the C++ header files that define our classes. We also introduce the concept of handles to objects in the system, and we begin to study how to implement handles in C++. In Chapter 7, we present a complete elevator simulator C++ program (approximately 1200 lines of code) and a detailed code walkthrough. The code follows directly from the UML-based design created in previous sections and employs our best programming practices. We also discuss dynamic-memory allocation, composition, object interaction via handles, and how to use forward declarations to avoid the circular-include problem. In Chapter 9, we update the elevator simulation design and implementation to incorporate inheritance and suggest further modifications.

Standard Template Library (STL)

This might be one of the most important chapters in the book in terms of your appreciation of software reuse. The STL defines powerful, template-based, reusable components that implement many common data structures and algorithms used to process those data structures. Chapter 21 introduces the STL and discusses its three key components—containers, iterators and algorithms. STL containers are data structures capable of storing objects of any data type. We show that there are three container categories—first-class containers, adapters and near containers. STL iterators, which are similar to pointers (but much safer), are used by programs to manipulate the STL-container elements. In fact, standard arrays can be manipulated as STL containers, using standard pointers as iterators. We show that manipulating containers with iterators is convenient and provides tremendous expressive power when combined with STL algorithms—in some cases, reducing many lines of code to a single statement. STL algorithms are functions that perform common data manipulations such as searching, sorting, comparing elements (or entire data structures), etc. There are approximately 70 algorithms implemented in the STL; these include common container operations such as searching for an element, sorting elements, comparing elements, removing elements, replacing elements and many more. Most of these algorithms use iterators to access container elements. We show that each first-class container supports specific iterator types, some of which are more powerful than others. A container’s supported iterator type determines whether the container can be used with a specific algorithm. Iterators encapsulate the mechanism used to access container elements. This encapsulation enables many of the STL algorithms to be applied to a variety of containers without regard for the underlying container implementation. As long as a container’s iterators support the minimum requirements of the algorithm, the algorithm can process that container’s elements. This also enables programmers to create algorithms that can process the elements of multiple container types. An advantage of the STL is that programmers can reuse the STL containers, iterators and algorithms to implement common data representations and manipulations. This reuse saves substantial development time and resources.

Teaching Approach

Our book is intended to be used at the introductory and intermediate levels. We have not attempted to cover every feature of the C++ standard. C++ has replaced C as the industry’s high-performance systems-implementation language of choice. However, C programming continues to be an important and valuable skill, because of the enormous amount of C legacy code that must be maintained in industry. We point out pitfalls and explain procedures for dealing with them effectively. Students are highly motivated by the fact that they are learning a leading-edge language (C++) and a leading-edge programming paradigm (object-oriented programming) that will be immediately useful to them as they leave the college environment.

C++ How to Program, 4/e, contains a rich collection of examples, exercises and projects drawn from many fields and designed to provide students with a chance to solve interesting, real-world problems. The code examples in the text have been tested on multiple compilers—Microsoft Visual C++ 6, Microsoft Visual C++ .NET, two versions of Borland C++Builder and two versions of GNU C++. For the most part, the programs in the text will work on all ANSI/ISO standard-compliant compilers; we posted the few problems we found at www.deitel.com. When possible, we also posted the exact fixes required to enable those programs to work with a particular compiler.

The book concentrates on the principles of good software engineering and stresses program clarity. We are educators who teach edge-of-the-practice topics in industry classrooms worldwide. This text emphasizes good pedagogy.

Live-Code™ Approach

C++ How to Program, 4/e, is loaded with numerous Live-Code™ examples. Each new concept is presented in the context of a complete, working example that is immediately followed by one or more sample executions showing the program’s input/output dialog. This style exemplifies the way we teach and write about programming and is the focus of our multimedia Cyber Classrooms and Web-based training courses. We call this method of teaching and writing the Live-Code™ Approach. We use programming languages to teach programming languages. Reading the examples in the text is much like typing and running them on a computer.

World Wide Web Access

All of the source-code examples for C++ How to Program, 4/e, (and our other publications) are available on the Internet as downloads from the following Web sites:


Registration is quick and easy and the downloads are free. We suggest downloading all the examples, then running each program as you read the corresponding text. Making changes to the examples and immediately seeing the effects of those changes is a great way to enhance your C++ learning experience.


Each chapter begins with objectives that inform students of what to expect and gives them an opportunity, after reading the chapter, to determine whether they have met the intended objectives. The objectives serve as confidence builders.


The chapter objectives are followed by sets of quotations. Some are humorous, some are philosophical and some offer interesting insights. We have found that students enjoy relating the quotations to the chapter material. Many of the quotations are worth a second look after you read the chapters.


The chapter outline enables students to approach the material in a top-down fashion. Along with the chapter objectives, the outline helps students anticipate future topics and set a comfortable and effective learning pace.

20,704 Lines of Syntax-Colored Code in 267 Example Programs (with Program Outputs)

We present C++ features in the context of complete, working C++ programs. These Live-Code™ programs range in size from just a few lines of code to substantial examples containing several hundred lines of code. Each program is followed by a window containing the outputs produced when the program is run. This enables the student to confirm that the programs run as expected. Relating outputs back to the program statements that produce those outputs is an excellent way to learn and to reinforce concepts. Our programs exercise the diverse features of C++. The code is syntax colored with C++ keywords, comments and other program text each appearing in different colors. This facilitates reading the code— students especially will appreciate the syntax coloring when they read the larger programs we present. All of the examples are available on the book’s CD and are free for download at www.deitel.com.

598 Illustrations/Figures

An abundance of charts, line drawings and program outputs is included. We have converted all flowcharts to UML activity diagrams. We also use UML class diagrams in Chapters 9, 10, 12, 14 and 22 to model the relationships between classes throughout the text.

601 Programming Tips

We have included six types of programming tip to help students focus on important aspects of program development, testing and debugging, performance and portability. We highlight hundreds of these tips as Good Programming Practices, Common Programming Errors, Performance Tips, Portability Tips, Software Engineering Observations and Testing and Debugging Tips. These tips and practices represent the best we could glean from almost six decades (combined) of programming and teaching experience. One of our students—a mathematics major—told us recently that she feels this approach is similar to the highlighting of axioms, theorems and corollaries in mathematics books, because it provides a sound basis on which to build good software.

90 Good Programming Practices

Good Programming Practices are tips that call attention to techniques that help students produce programs that are more readable, self-documenting and easier to maintain. When we teach introductory courses to nonprogrammers, we state that the "buzzword" of each course is "clarity," and we tell the students that we will highlight (in these Good Programming Practices) techniques for writing programs that are clearer, more understandable and more maintainable.

198 Common Programming Errors

Students learning a language—especially in their first programming course—tend to make certain kinds of errors frequently. Focusing on these Common Programming Errors reduces the likelihood that students will makes the same mistakes. It also shortens long lines outside instructors’ offices during office hours!

88 Performance Tips

In our experience, teaching students to write clear and understandable programs is by far the most important goal for a first programming course. But students want to write the programs that run the fastest, use the least memory, require the smallest number of keystrokes or dazzle in other ways. Students really care about performance and they want to know what they can do to produce the most efficient programs. So we include Performance Tips that highlight opportunities for improving program performance—making programs run faster or minimizing the amount of memory that they occupy.

36 Portability Tips

Software development is a complex and expensive activity. Organizations that develop software must often produce versions customized to a variety of computers and operating systems. So there is a strong emphasis today on portability, i.e., on producing software that will run on a variety of computer systems with few, if any, changes. Some programmers assume that if they implement an application in standard C++, the application will be portable. This is simply not the case. Achieving portability requires careful and cautious design. There are many pitfalls. We include Portability Tips to help students write portable code and to provide insights on how C++ achieves its high degree of portability.

149 Software Engineering Observations

The object-oriented programming paradigm necessitates a complete rethinking of the way we build software systems. C++ is an effective language for achieving good software engineering. The Software Engineering Observations highlight architectural and design issues, that affect the construction of software systems, especially large-scale systems. Much of what the student learns here will be useful in upper-level courses and in industry as the student begins to work with large, complex real-world systems.

38 Testing and Debugging Tips

When we first designed this "tip type," we thought the tips would contain suggestions strictly for exposing bugs and removing them from programs. In fact, many of the tips describe aspects of C++ that prevent "bugs" from getting into programs in the first place, thus simplifying the testing and debugging process.

Summary (875 Summary bullets)

Each chapter ends with additional pedagogical devices. We present a thorough, bullet-list-style summary of the chapter. This helps the student review and reinforce key concepts. There is an average of 40 summary bullets per chapter.

Terminology (1782 Terms)

We include an alphabetized list of the important terms defined in the chapter in a Terminology section. Again, this serves as further reinforcement. There are, on average, 81 terms per chapter. Each term also appears in the index, so the reader can locate terms and definitions quickly.

555 Self-Review Exercises and Answers (Count Includes Separate Parts)

Extensive Self-Review Exercises and Answers to Self-Review Exercises are included for self study. This gives the student a chance to build confidence with the material and prepare to attempt the regular exercises.

800 Exercises (Solutions in Instructor’s Manual; Count Includes Separate Parts)

Each chapter concludes with a substantial set of exercises including simple recall of important terminology and concepts; writing individual C++ statements; writing small portions of C++ functions and classes; writing complete C++ functions, classes and programs; and writing major term projects. The large number of exercises enables instructors to tailor their courses to the unique needs of their audiences and to vary course assignments each semester. Instructors can use these exercises to form homework assignments, short quizzes and major examinations. The solutions for the exercises are included on the Instructor’s CD which is available only to instructors through their Prentice Hall representatives. [NOTE: Please do not write to us requesting the Instructor’s CD. Distribution of this ancillary is limited strictly to college professors teaching from the book. Instructors may obtain the solutions manual only from their Prentice Hall representatives.] Students and professional readers can obtain solutions to approximately half the exercises in the book by purchasing the optional C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e. The Cyber Classroom offers many other valuable capabilities as well and is ideal for self study and reference. Also available is the boxed product, The Complete C++ Training Course, 4/e, which includes both our textbook, C++ How to Program, 4/e, and the C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e. All of our Complete Training Course products are available at bookstores and online booksellers, including www.informIT.com.

Approximately 5,000 Index Entries (with approximately 7,700 Page References)

We have included an extensive Index at the back of the book. Using this resource, readers can search for any term or concept by keyword. The Index is useful to people reading the book for the first time and is especially useful to professional programmers who use the book as a reference. These index entries also appear as hyperlinks in the C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e.

"Double Indexing" of All C++ Live-Code™ Examples

C++ How to Program, 4/e, has 267 Live-Code™ examples, which we have "double indexed." For every C++ source-code program in the book, we took the figure caption and indexed it both alphabetically and as a subindex item under "Examples." This makes it easier to find examples that are demonstrating particular features. Each of the figure captions also appears in the Illustrations section (following the Contents section) at the front of the book.

Software Included with C++ How to Program, 4/e

C++ How to Program, 3/e, included on its CD the Microsoft Visual C++ 6 Introductory Edition development environment. In C++ How to Program, 4/e, we wanted to include Microsoft’s new Visual C++ .NET development environment, but Microsoft was not as yet making this software available to be included with textbooks. As soon as Microsoft does make Visual C++ .NET available, we will post information at our Web site indicating how students and professionals can obtain this software; there will be separate instructions for students and professionals. C++ How to Program, 4/e, includes Microsoft Visual C++ 6 Introductory Edition. A separate value-pack option also is available that contains Metrowerks CodeWarrior (ISBN# 0-13-101151-0); for more information on this option please write to cs@prenhall.com or deitel@deitel.com.

Free C++ Compilers and Trial-Edition C++ Compilers on the Web

This section overviews C++ compilers that are available for download over the Web. We discuss only those compilers that are available for free or as free-trial versions. Please keep in mind that in many cases, the trial-edition software cannot be used after the trial period has expired.

One popular organization that develops free software is the GNU Project (www.gnu.org), originally created to develop a free operating system similar to UNIX. GNU offers developer resources, including editors, debuggers and compilers. Many developers use the gcc (GNU Compiler Collection) compilers, available for download from gcc.gnu.org. This product contains compilers for C, C++, Java and other languages. The gcc compiler is a command-line compiler (i.e., it does not provide a graphical user interface). Many Linux and UNIX systems come with the gcc compiler installed. Red Hat has developed Cygwin (www.cygwin.com), an emulator that allows developers to use UNIX commands on Windows. Cygwin includes the gcc compiler.

Intel provides 30-day trial versions for its Windows and Linux C++ command-line compilers. The 30-day trial period also includes free customer support. Information on both compilers can be found at developer.intel.com/software/products/global/eval.htm.

Borland provides a Windows-based C++ developer product called C++Builder (www.borland.com/cbuilder/cppcomp/index.html). The basic C++Builder compiler (a command-line compiler) is free for download. Borland also provides several versions of the C++Builder that contain graphical user interfaces (GUIs). These GUIs are more formally called integrated development environments (IDEs), and, unlike command-line compilers, enable the developer to edit, debug and test programs quickly. Using an IDE, many of the tasks that involved tedious commands can now be executed via menus and buttons. Some of these products are available on a free-trial basis. For more information on C++Builder, visit


For Linux developers, Borland provides the Borland Kylix development environment. The Borland Kylix Open Edition, which includes an IDE, can be downloaded from


Many of the downloads available from Borland require users to register.

The Digital Mars C++ Compiler (www.digitalmars.com), is available for Windows and DOS, and includes tutorials and documentation. Readers can download a command-line or IDE version of the compiler. The DJGPP C/C++ development system is available for computers running DOS. DJGPP stands for DJ’s GNU Programming Platform, where DJ is for DJ Delorie, the creator of DJGPP. Information on DJGPP can be found at www.delorie.com/djgpp. Locations where the compiler can be downloaded at are provided at www.delorie.com/djgpp/getting.html.


Dive-Into™ Series Tutorials for Popular C++ Environments

We have launched our new Dive-Into™ Series of tutorials to help our readers get started with many popular C++ program-development environments. These are available free for download at www.deitel.com/books/downloads.html.

Currently, we have the following Dive-Into™ Series publications:

Dive-Into Microsoft® Visual C++® 6

Dive-Into Microsoft® Visual C++® .NET

Dive-Into Borland™ C++Builder™ Compiler (command-line version)

Dive-Into Borland™ C++Builder™ Personal (IDE version)

Dive-Into GNU C++ on Linux

Dive-Into GNU C++ via Cygwin on Windows (Cygwin is a UNIX emulator for Windows that includes the GNU C++ compiler.)

Each of these tutorials shows how to compile, execute and debug C++ applications in that particular compiler product. Many of these documents also provide step-by-step instructions with screenshots to help readers to install the software. Each document overviews the compiler and its online documentation.


Ancillary Package for C++ How to Program, 4/e

C++ How to Program, 4/e, has extensive ancillary materials for instructors. The Instructor’s Resource CD (IRCD) contains the Instructor’s Manual with solutions to the vast majority of the end-of-chapter exercises and a Test Item File of multiple-choice questions (approximately two per book section). In addition, we provide PowerPoint® slides containing all the code and figures in the text, and bulleted items that summarize the key points in the text. Instructors can customize the slides. The PowerPoint® slides are downloadable from www.deitel.com and are available as part of Prentice Hall’s Companion Web Site (www.prenhall.com/deitel) for C++ How to Program, 4/e, which offers resources for both instructors and students. For instructors, the Companion Web Site offers a Syllabus Manager, which helps instructors plan courses interactively and create online syllabi.

Students also benefit from the functionality of the Companion Web Site. Book-specific resources for students include:

Customizable PowerPoint® slides

Example source code

Reference materials from the book appendices (such as operator-precedence chart, character set and Web resources)

Chapter-specific resources available for students include:

Chapter objectives

Highlights (e.g., chapter summary)


Tips (e.g., Common Programming Errors, Good Programming Practices, Portability Tips, Performance Tips, Software Engineering Observations and Testing and Debugging Tips)

Online Study Guide—contains additional short-answer self-review exercises (e.g., true/false and matching questions) with answers and provides immediate feedback to the student

Students can track their results and course performance on quizzes using the Student Profile feature, which records and manages all feedback and results from tests taken on the Companion Web Site. To access Deitel™ Companion Web Site, visit www.prenhall.com/deitel.


C++ in the Lab

This lab manual (full title: C++ in the Lab, Lab Manual to Accompany C++ How to Program, Fourth Edition; ISBN 0-13-038478-X) complements C++ How to Program, 4/e, and the optional C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e, by providing a series of hands-on lab assignments designed to reinforce students’ understanding of lecture material. This lab manual is designed for closed laboratories, which are regularly scheduled classes supervised by an instructor. Closed laboratories provide an excellent learning environment because students can use concepts presented in class to solve carefully designed lab problems. Instructors are better able to gauge the students’ understanding of the material by monitoring the students’ progress in lab. This lab manual also can be used for open laboratories, homework and for self-study.

C++ in the Lab focuses on Chapters 1–14 and 17 of C++ How to Program, 4/e. Each chapter in the lab manual is divided into Prelab Activities, Lab Exercises and Postlab Activities. Each chapter contains objectives that introduce the lab’s key topics and an assignment checklist that allows students to mark which exercises the instructor has assigned. Each page in the lab manual is perforated, so students can submit their answers (if required).

Solutions to the lab manual’s Prelab Activities, Lab Exercises and Postlab Activities are available in electronic form. Instructors can obtain these materials from their regular Prentice Hall representatives; the solutions are not available to students.

Prelab Activities

Prelab Activities are intended to be completed by students after studying each chapter in C++ How to Program, 4/e. Prelab Activities test students’ understanding of the material presented in the textbook, and prepare students for the programming exercises in the lab session. (These activities may be finished before or during lab, at the instructor’s discretion.) The exercises focus on important terminology and programming concepts and are effective for self-review. Prelab Activities include Matching Exercises, Fill-in-the-Blank Exercises, Short-Answer Questions, Programming-Output Exercises (these ask students to determine what short code segment do without actually running the program) and Correct-the-Code Exercises (these ask students to identify and correct all errors in short code segments).

Lab Exercises

The most important section in each chapter is the Lab Exercises. These exercises teach students how to apply the material learned in C++ How to Program, 4/e, and prepare them for writing C++ programs. Each lab contains one or more lab exercises and a debugging problem. The Lab Exercises contain the following:

Lab Objectives highlight specific concepts on which the lab exercise focuses.

Problem Descriptions provide the details of the exercise and hints to help students implement the program.

Sample Outputs illustrate the desired program behavior, which further clarifies the problem descriptions and aids the students with writing programs.

Program Templates take complete C++ programs and replace key lines of code with comments describing the missing code.

Problem-Solving Tips highlight key issues that students need to consider when solving the lab exercises.

Follow-Up Questions and Activities ask students to modify solutions to lab exercises, write new programs that are similar to their lab-exercise solutions or explain the implementation choices that were made when solving lab exercises.

Debugging Problems consist of a blocks of code that contain syntax errors and/or logic errors. These alert students to the types of errors they are likely to encounter while programming.

Postlab Activities

Professors typically assign Postlab Activities to reinforce key concepts or to provide students with more programming experience outside the lab. Postlab Activities test the students’ understanding of the Prelab and Lab Exercise material, and ask students to apply the knowledge to creating programs from scratch. The section provides two types of programming activities: coding exercises and programming challenges. Coding exercises are short and serve as review after the Prelab Activities and Lab Exercises have been completed. These exercises ask students to write programs or program segments using key concepts from the textbook. Programming challenges allow students to apply the knowledge they have gained in class to substantial programming exercises. Hints, sample outputs and/or pseudocode are provided to aid students with these problems. Students who complete the programming challenges for a chapter successfully have indeed mastered the chapter material. Answers to the programming challenges are available for download from www.deitel.com.


The C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e, and The Complete C++ Training Course, 4/e

We have updated our optional interactive multimedia version of the book—The C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e (CD for Windows®)—with considerable additional audio, including the new material on Web Programming with CGI. This resource is loaded with electronic features that are ideal for both learning and reference. The Cyber Classroom is packaged with the textbook at a discount in The Complete C++ Training Course, 4/e. If you already have the book and would like to purchase the C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/ e, separately, please visit www.InformIT.com/cyberclassrooms; the ISBN number for this product is 0-13-100253-8. Deitel™ Cyber Classrooms are generally available in CD and various popular Web-based training formats.

The CD provides an introduction in which the authors overview the Cyber Classroom’s features. The textbook’s 267 Live-Code™ example C++ programs truly "come alive" in the Cyber Classroom. If you are viewing a program and want to execute it, you simply click the lightning-bolt icon to run the program. You immediately will see the program’s output. If you want to modify a program and see the effects of your changes, simply clicking the floppy-disk icon causes the source code to be "lifted off" the CD and "dropped into" one of your own directories so you can edit the code, recompile the program and try out your new version. Click the audio icon to hear one of the authors "walk you through" the code. In addition, the Cyber Classroom contains the full-text of C++ How to Program, 4/e, in fully-searchable format.

The Cyber Classroom also provides post-assessment exams (with answers) for each chapter in the book. These exams are powerful features that allow users to gauge their understanding of the programming concepts presented in the chapters. Each exam question hyperlinks to the section in the book from which the question was derived. This allows users to review the appropriate chapter material before or after answering the question. A chart is provided that summarizes the user’s exam results by chapter.

The Cyber Classroom also provides navigational aids, including extensive additional hyperlinking for easy navigation. The Cyber Classroom is browser based, so it remembers sections that you have visited recently and allows you to move forward or backward among them. The thousands of index entries are hyperlinked to their text occurrences. Furthermore, when you key in a term using the "find" feature, the Cyber Classroom will locate occurrences of that term throughout the text. The Table of Contents entries are "hot," so clicking a chapter or section name takes you immediately to that chapter or section.

Students like the fact that solutions to approximately half the exercises in the book are included with the Cyber Classroom. Studying and running these extra programs is a nice way for students to enhance their Live-Code™ learning experience.

Students and professional users of our Cyber Classrooms tell us that they like the interactivity and that the Cyber Classroom is a powerful reference tool. We received an e-mail from a person who said that he lives "in the boonies" and cannot take a live course at a university, so the Cyber Classroom provided a nice solution to his educational needs.

Professors tell us that their students enjoy using the Cyber Classroom, and consequently spend more time on the courses, mastering more of the material than in textbook-only courses. For a complete list of the available and forthcoming Cyber Classrooms and Complete Training Courses, see the Deitel™ Series page at the beginning of this book, the product listing and ordering information at the end of this book or visit www.deitel.com, www.prenhall.com/deitel and www.InformIT.com/deitel.


Course Management Systems: Blackboard™, WebCT™, CourseCompass and Premium CourseCompass

Selected content from the Deitels’ introductory programming language How to Program series, including C++ How to Program, 4/e, is available to integrate into various popular Course Management Systems, including CourseCompass, Blackboard and WebCT. An enhanced version of CourseCompass, called Premium CourseCompass, will be available for C++ How to Program, 4/e, in January 2003. Course Management Systems help faculty create, manage and use sophisticated Web-based educational tools and programs. Instructors can save hours of inputting data by using Deitel content, created by and for educators, for various Course Management Systems.

Blackboard, CourseCompass and WebCT offer:

Features to create and customize an online course, such as areas to post course information (e.g., policies, syllabi, announcements, assignments, grades, performance evaluations and progress tracking), class and student management tools, a gradebook, reporting tools, page tracking, a calendar and assignments.

Communication tools to help create and maintain interpersonal relationships between students and instructors, including chat rooms, whiteboards, document sharing, bulletin boards and private e-mail.

Flexible testing tools that allow an instructor to create online quizzes and tests from questions directly linked to the text, and that grade and track results effectively. All tests can be inputted into the gradebook for efficient course management. WebCT also allows instructors to administer timed online quizzes.

Support materials for instructors are available in print and online formats.

In addition to the types of tools found in Blackboard and WebCT, CourseCompass from Prentice Hall includes:

CourseCompass course home page, which makes the course as easy to navigate as a book. An expandable table of contents allows instructors to view course content at a glance and to link to any section.

Hosting on Prentice Hall’s centralized servers, which allows course administrators to avoid separate licensing fees or server-space issues. Access to Prentice Hall technical support also is available.

"How Do I" online-support sections are available for users who need help personalizing course sites, including step-by-step instructions for adding PowerPoint® slides, video and more.

Instructor Quick Start Guide helps instructors create online courses using a simple, step-by-step process.

Introducing the Premium CourseCompass Course Management System

Premium CourseCompass integrates content from a rich variety of sources, including Deitel Cyber Classrooms, How to Program books and Companion Web Sites with CourseCompass courseware—providing enhanced content to CourseCompass users. Premium CourseCompass includes:

Pre-loaded Deitel™ Content in a Customizable Interface. An instructor can aggregate and customize all course materials. This feature includes the e-Book, a searchable digital version of C++ How to Program, 4/e, including full-color graphics and downloadable PowerPoint® slides.

All the Interactivity of the Cyber Classroom. Students can work with code and receive the added benefit of 17+ hours of detailed audio descriptions of thousands of lines of code to help reinforce concepts. Every code example from C++ How to Program, 4/e, is included.

Abundant Self-Assessment and Complete Test-Item File. Use or edit hundreds of pre-loaded assessments, or upload your own. Assessments include self-review exercises, programming exercises (half with answers included) and test questions. Instructors choose which questions to assign, and students receive immediate feedback. Instructors can collect students’ work and track their progress in an online gradebook.

To view free online demonstrations and learn more about these Course Management Systems, that support Deitel content, visit the following Web sites:

Blackboard:     www.blackboard.com and www.prenhall.com/blackboard.

WebCT:        www.webct.com and www.prenhall.com/webct.

CourseCompass:  www.coursecompass.com and www.prenhall.com/coursecompass.


Deitel e-Learning Initiatives

e-Books and Support for Wireless Devices

Wireless devices will have an enormous role in the future of the Internet. Given recent bandwidth enhancements and the emergence of 2.5 and 3G technologies, it is projected that, within a few years, more people will access the Internet through wireless devices than through desktop computers. Deitel & Associates is committed to wireless accessibility and recently published Wireless Internet & Mobile Business How to Program. To fulfill the needs of a wide range of customers, we currently are developing our content both in traditional print formats and in newly developed electronic formats, such as wireless e-books so that students and professors can access content virtually anytime, anywhere. For periodic updates on these initiatives subscribe to the Deitel™ Buzz Online e-mail newsletter, www.deitel.com/newsletter/subscribe.html or visit www.deitel.com.


Deitel & Associates is partnering with Prentice Hall’s parent company, Pearson PLC, and its information technology Web site, www.InformIT.com, to launch the Deitel™ e-Matter series at www.InformIT.com/deitel in Spring 2003. This series will provide professors, students and professionals with an additional source of information on programming and software topics. e-Matter consists of stand-alone sections taken from published texts, forthcoming texts or pieces written during the Deitel research-and-development process. Developing e-Matter based on pre-publication books allows us to offer significant amounts of the material to early adopters for use in academic and corporate courses.

Our own free newsletter, the Deitel™ Buzz Online, includes commentary on industry trends and developments, links to free articles and resources from our published books and upcoming publications, product-release schedules, challenges, anecdotes, information on our corporate instructor-led training courses and more. To subscribe, visit



Deitel Column in the InformIT Newsletters

Deitel & Associates, Inc., contributes articles to two free InformIT weekly e-mail newsletters, currently subscribed to by more than 1,000,000 IT professionals worldwide.

Editorial NewsletterContains dozens of new articles per week on various IT topics, including programming, advanced computing, networking, business, Web development, software engineering, operating systems and more. Deitel & Associates contributes 2–3 articles per week taken from our extensive content base or from material being created during our research and development process.

Promotional NewsletterFeatures weekly specials and discounts on most Pearson publications. Each week a new Deitel™ product is featured along with information about our corporate instructor-led training courses.

To subscribe, visit www.InformIT.com.


The New Deitel™ Developer Series

Deitel & Associates, Inc., is making a major commitment to covering leading-edge technologies for industry software professionals through the launch of our Deitel™ Developer Series. Web Services A Technical Introduction and Java Web Services for Experienced Programmers are among the first books in the series. These will be followed by Java 2 Enterprise Edition, Java 2 Micro Edition, .NET A Technical Introduction, ASP .NET with Visual Basic .NET for Experienced Programmers, ASP .NET with C# for Experienced Programmers and many more. Please visit www.deitel.com for continuous updates on all published and forthcoming Deitel™ Developer Series titles.

The Deitel™ Developer Series is divided into three subseries. The A Technical Introduction subseries provides IT managers and developers with detailed overviews of emerging technologies. The A Programmer’s Introduction subseries is designed to teach the fundamentals of new languages and software technologies to programmers and novices from the ground up; these books discuss programming fundamentals, followed by brief introductions to more sophisticated topics. The For Experienced Programmers subseries is designed for seasoned developers seeking a deeper treatment of new programming languages and technologies, without the encumbrance of introductory material; the books in this subseries move quickly to in-depth coverage of the features of the programming languages and software technologies being covered.



One of the great pleasures of writing a textbook is acknowledging the efforts of many people whose names may not appear on the cover, but whose hard work, cooperation, friendship and understanding were crucial to the production of the book. Many people at Deitel & Associates, Inc. devoted long hours to this project.

Tem Nieto, a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Director of Product Development at Deitel & Associates, co-authored Chapter 15, 20 and 22 and the "Building Your Own Compiler" Special Section in Chapter 17. He also contributed to the Instructor’s Manual and the C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e, and developed the student lab manual, C++ in the Lab, and the corresponding instructor’s manual.

Ben Wiedermann, a graduate of Boston University with a degree in Computer Science, was the lead developer, programmer and writer working with Dr. Harvey M. Deitel on the UML case study in Chapters 1–7 and 9.

Sean E. Santry, a graduate of Boston College with degrees in Computer Science and Philosophy, is Director of Software Development at Deitel & Associates. Sean worked on the coding and code walkthroughs of the UML Case Study and helped certify the technical accuracy of Chapters 2–5, 8, 9, 11, 12, 16 and 21.

Jonathan Gadzik, a graduate of the Columbia University School of Engineering and Applied Science with a degree in Computer Science, contributed to the "Thinking About Objects" sections, the preface and Chapters 1, 9–14 and 16; Jon also updated all the UML diagrams in Chapters 2, 9, 12 and 14 to version 1.4.

Cheryl Yaeger, a graduate of Boston University with a degree in Computer Science, is Director of .NET Development at Deitel & Associates. Cheryl helped certify the technical accuracy of Chapters 17, 19 and 20.

Christi Kelsey, a graduate of Purdue University with a degree in Management and a minor in Information Systems, is Director of Business Development at Deitel & Associates. Christi worked on the Internet and Web Resources appendix, applied copy edits to the manuscript and contributed to the preface.

Laura Treibick, a graduate of the University of Colorado at Boulder with a degree in Photography and Multimedia, is Director of Multimedia at Deitel & Associates. She enhanced many of the graphics throughout the text, consulted on the book-cover design and audited the index.

Christina Courtemarche, a graduate of Boston University with a degree in Computer Science, certified Chapters 9, 11, 13 and 15 for technical accuracy.

Betsy Duwaldt, Editorial Director at Deitel & Associates, is a graduate of Metropolitan State College of Denver with a degree in Technical Communications (Writing and Editing Emphasis). Betsy edited the Preface and Appendix D.

Barbara Deitel applied the copy edits to the manuscript. She did this in parallel with handling her extensive financial and administrative responsibilities at Deitel & Associates.

Abbey Deitel, a graduate of Carnegie Mellon University’s Industrial Management Program and President of Deitel & Associates, recruited additional full-time employees and interns during 2002 and leased, equipped and furnished our new corporate headquarters to create the work environment in which C++ How to Program, 4/e, and our other Deitel 2002 publications were produced. She suggested the title for the How to Program series and contributed to this preface.

We would also like to thank the participants in the Deitel & Associates, Inc., College Internship Program.

Emanuel Achildiev, a sophomore in Computer Science at Northeastern University, worked on the ancillaries for Chapters 6 and 8 and tested the example programs on several platforms.

Kalid Azad, a senior at Princeton University in Computer Science, worked on the book’s ancillaries, including the PowerPoint® Instructor Lecture Notes and the Test Item File.

Nicholas Cassie, a sophomore at Northeastern University in Computer Science, worked on the ancillary materials for Chapters 4, 10–12 and 14 and tested example programs on several C++ compilers.

Thiago da Silva, a sophomore at Northeastern University in Computer Science, tested the programs for the entire book on many C++ compilers. He also contributed to the online Dive-Into™ support materials that demonstrate how to write, compile and debug programs with several C++ development environments.

Mike Dos’Santos, a Computer Science major at Northeastern University, produced ancillary materials for Chapters 7, 9 and 13, and did extensive work on C++ in the Lab.

Brian Foster, a sophomore at Northeastern University in Computer Science, tested the example programs on several C++ compilers. He also contributed to the online Dive-Into™ support materials that demonstrate how to write, compile and debug programs with several C++ development environments.

Audrey Lee, a graduate of Wellesley College and a Ph.D. candidate in Computer Science at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, worked on the book’s ancillaries, including the PowerPoint® Instructor Lecture Notes, the Companion Web Site, the C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e, and the Test Item File.

Jimmy Nguyen, a sophomore in Computer Science at Northeastern University, worked on the ancillaries for Chapters 5, 15 and 17. He also tested the book’s programs on several C++ compilers.

Matthew Rubino, a sophomore at Northeastern University in Computer Science, tested the programs on several C++ compilers. He also contributed to the online Dive-Into™ support materials.

We would like to thank one of our business colleagues who contributed to the book. Chris Poirier, an independent consultant, co-authored Chapter 16, Web Programming with CGI. Chris also is a FrameMaker Developer Kit (FDK) expert; he used this product to implement the new yellow background code-highlighting style, so crucial to enhancing the pedagogy in C++ How to Program, 4/e. We also would like to thank Justin Liberman who researched the URLs in Appendix D.

We are fortunate to have worked on this project with the talented and dedicated team of publishing professionals at Prentice Hall. We especially appreciate the extraordinary efforts of our Computer Science editor, Petra Recter and her boss—our mentor in publishing—Marcia Horton, Editorial Director of Prentice-Hall’s Engineering and Computer Science Division. Vince O’Brien did a marvelous job managing the production of the book. Sarah Burrows managed the publication of the book’s extensive ancillary package. Pamela Shaffer, Executive Marketing Manager for Computer Science, developed the book’s extensive marketing program.

The C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e, was developed in parallel with C++ How to Program, 4/e. We sincerely appreciate the "new media" insight, savvy and technical expertise of our electronic-media editors, Mark Taub and Karen McLean. They, with project manager Mike Ruel, did a wonderful job publishing the C++ Multimedia Cyber Classroom, 4/e, and The Complete C++ Training Course, 4/e.

We owe special thanks to the creativity of Tamara Newnam (smart_art@earthlink.net). Tammy produced the cover and created the delightful creature who shares with you the book’s programming tips. Barbara Deitel contributed the bugs’ names for the front cover.

We would like to extend a special note of thanks to Steve Clamage of Sun Microsystems, the chairman of ANSI Technical Committee J16, the group responsible for developing and evolving the standard for C++. Steve’s contributions to this book (and previous editions) are profound. We benefited greatly from his insightful comments and deep understanding of C++. Steve wants textbooks describing C++ to be correct and he takes time from his busy professional schedule to help us and other C++ authors "get it right." Our sincere thanks to a consummate professional.

We wish to acknowledge the efforts of our 52 Fourth Edition reviewers and to give a special note of thanks to Jennifer Capello of Prentice Hall, who managed this extraordinary review effort.

Fourth Edition Reviewers

Reviewers of C++ Material

Ammar Abuthuraya (Microsoft)

Richard Albright (University of Delaware)

Rob Andrews (Independent software developer)

Peter Becker (Dinkumware, Ltd.)

Carl Burnham (HostingResolve.com)

Jimmy Chen (Salt Lake Community College)

Ram Choppa (Baker Hughes)

Stephen Clamage (ANSI J16 Chair; Sun Microsystems)

Nathan Clegg (Geerbox)

Eric Crampton (Automated Trading Desk)

Timothy Culp (Harris Corporation)

Joel Davis (DinaaliSystems)

Christophe de Dinechin (Hewlett-Packard)

Vincent Drake (Borland)

Lars Marius Garshol (Ontopian)

John Godel (EPOCH Technical Services)

Ric Heishman (Northern Virginia Community College)

Anne Horton (AT&T)

James Huddleston (Independent consultant)

Rex Jaeschke (Independent consultant)

Clark Jefcoat (ProObject)

Vivek Kajale (University of Texas, Arlington)

Sam Kohn (New York Institute of Technology)

Don Kostuch (You Can C Clearly Now)

Stan Kurkovsky (Columbus State University)

Meng Lee (Co-creator of STL; Hewlett-Packard)

Sean McGrath (Propylon)

Robert Myers (Florida State University)

Ami Neiman (DeVry University—Fremont)

David Papurt (Independent contractor; C++ lecturer and author)

Garrett Pease (LearnFrame, Inc.)

Wolfgang Pelz (University of Akron)

Tom Pennings (Borland)

Prashant Rane (University of Texas)

Shailesh Ratadia (Microsoft)

Kroum Savadjiev (Purkinje Inc.)

Vicki Scott (Metrowerks, Inc.)

Richard Seabrook (Anne Arundel Community College)

Gary Sibbitts (St. Louis Community College)

Vladimir Toncar (Kerio Technologies)

Owen Urkov (Borland)

Reid Wilkes (Microsoft)

C++ How to Program, 4/e, OOD/UML Case Study Reviewers

Brian Cook (Zurich Insurance)

Ron Felice (Omniware Development)

Terry Hull (Enterprise Component Technologies, Inc.)

Don Kostuch (You Can C Clearly)

Grant Larsen (Rational Software)

Davyd Norris (Rational Software)

Kendall Scott (Independent consultant)

Cameron Skinner (Embarcadero Technologies; OMG)

Mark Taube (Raytheon)

Stephen Tockey (Construx Software; OMG)

Bing Xue (Siemens Applied Automation)

Under tight deadlines, these reviewers scrutinized every aspect of the text and made countless suggestions for improving the accuracy and completeness of the presentation.


Contacting Deitel & Associates

We would sincerely appreciate your comments, criticisms, corrections and suggestions for improving the text. Please address all correspondence to:


We will respond promptly.



We will post all errata for the Fourth Edition at www.deitel.com.


Customer Support

Please direct all software and installation questions to Pearson Education Technical Support:

By phone: 1-800-677-6337

By email: media.support@pearsoned.com

On the Web: www.prenhall.com

Please direct all C++ language questions to deitel@deitel.com.

Well, that is it for now. Welcome to the exciting world of C++, object-oriented programming, UML, generic programming with the STL and C++ Web programming with CGI. We hope you enjoy this look at contemporary computer programming. Good luck!

Dr. Harvey M. Deitel

Paul J. Deitel

About the Authors

Dr. Harvey M. Deitel, Chairman and Chief Strategy Officer (CSO) of Deitel & Associates, Inc., has 41 years experience in the computing field, including extensive industry and academic experience. Dr. Deitel earned B.S. and M.S. degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. from Boston University. He worked on the pioneering virtual-memory operating-systems projects at IBM and MIT that developed techniques now widely implemented in systems such as UNIX, Linux and Windows XP. He has 20 years of college teaching experience, including earning tenure and serving as the Chairman of the Computer Science Department at Boston College before founding Deitel & Associates, Inc., with his son, Paul J. Deitel. He and Paul are the co-authors of several dozen books and multimedia packages and they are writing many more. With translations published in Japanese, Russian, Spanish, Traditional Chinese, Simplified Chinese, Korean, French, Polish, Italian, Portuguese, Greek, Urdu and Turkish, the Deitels’ texts have earned international recognition. Dr. Deitel has delivered professional seminars to major corporations, government organizations and various branches of the military.

Paul J. Deitel, CEO and Chief Technical Officer of Deitel & Associates, Inc., is a graduate of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Sloan School of Management, where he studied Information Technology. Through Deitel & Associates, Inc., he has delivered C, C++, Java, Internet and World Wide Web courses to industry clients, including Compaq, Sun Microsystems, White Sands Missile Range, Rogue Wave Software, Boeing, Dell, Stratus, Fidelity, Cambridge Technology Partners, Open Environment Corporation, One Wave, Hyperion Software, Lucent Technologies, Adra Systems, Entergy, CableData Systems, NASA at the Kennedy Space Center, the National Severe Storm Laboratory, IBM and many other organizations. He has lectured on C++ and Java for the Boston Chapter of the Association for Computing Machinery and has taught satellite-based Java courses through a cooperative venture of Deitel & Associates, Prentice Hall and the Technology Education Network. He and his father, Dr. Harvey M. Deitel, are the world’s best-selling Computer Science textbook authors.

About Deitel & Associates, Inc.

Deitel & Associates, Inc., is an internationally recognized corporate training and content-creation organization specializing in Internet/World Wide Web software technology, e-business/e-commerce software technology, object technology and computer programming languages education. The company provides instructor-led courses on Internet and World Wide Web/ programming, wireless Internet programming, object technology, and major programming languages and platforms, such as C, C++, Visual C++® .NET, Visual Basic® .NET, C#, Java, Advanced Java, XML, Perl, Python and more. The founders of Deitel & Associates, Inc., are Dr. Harvey M. Deitel and Paul J. Deitel. The company’s clients include many of the world’s largest computer companies, government agencies, branches of the military and business organizations. Through its 27-year publishing partnership with Prentice Hall, Deitel & Associates, Inc., publishes leading-edge programming textbooks, professional books, interactive CD-based multimedia Cyber Classrooms, Complete Training Courses, e-books, e-Matter, Web-based training courses and course management systems e-content for popular CMSs such as WebCT, Blackboard and CourseCompass. Deitel & Associates, Inc., and the authors can be reached via e-mail at:


To learn more about Deitel & Associates, Inc., its publications and its worldwide corporate on-site curriculum, see the last few pages of this book or visit:


Individuals wishing to purchase Deitel™ books, Cyber Classrooms, Complete Training Courses and Web-based training courses can do so through bookstores, online booksellers and:


Bulk orders by corporations and academic institutions should be placed directly with Prentice Hall. See the last few pages of this book for worldwide ordering details.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)

Deitel & Associates, Inc., is a member of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). The W3C was founded in 1994 "to develop common protocols for the evolution of the World Wide Web." As a W3C member, Deitel & Associates, Inc., holds a seat on the W3C Advisory Committee (the company’s representative is our CEO, Paul Deitel). Advisory Committee members help provide "strategic direction" to the W3C through meetings held around the world. Member organizations also help develop standards recommendations for Web technologies (such as XHTML, XML and many others) through participation in W3C activities and groups. Membership in the W3C is intended for companies and large organizations. To obtain information on becoming a member of the W3C visit


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