Chapter 1: Introduction - I
- To understand the activity of programming
- To learn about the architecture of computers
What is a Computer?
- Computers can handle repetitive chores
without becoming bored or exhausted.
A computer is programmable to handle
- Balancing checkbooks
- Browsing Internet
- Processing words
- Playing games
- Computer actions are composed of huge
of extremely primitive operations.
Examples of primitive operations:
- Put a red dot at this screen position
- Get a number from the location in memory
- Send a letter A to the printer
- Add up these two numbers
- If this value is negative, continue the program at that
- The computer gives the illusion of
interaction because it executes these operations a great
- Computers are flexible: they can
wide range of tasks because they execute different programs, each of which
computer to work on a specific task.
What is Programming?
- A program tells the computer the
of steps needed to fulfill a task.
- A programmer designs and implements
- Most computer users are not
- Programming is an essential skill
for a computer scientist, software engineer or network
(System administration and Internet programming).
Programming is not the only skill
required to be a successful computer specialist.
- Early programming experiences are mundane and
will not rival sophisticated software that you are familiar
- Once certain skills are developed, even simple
programs can be thrilling.
The Anatomy of a Computer
CPU (Central Processing Unit):
- Plastic, metal and mostly silicon.
- Composed of several million transistors.
- Enormously complicated wiring.
- Performs program control, arithmetic, and
- Locates and executes program instructions.
- RAM (Random Access Memory): read-write
- ROM (Read Only Memory): contains certain
programs that must always be present, the code needed to
storage (e.g. a hard drive or flash memory)
provides persistent storage.
- The bus is a set of electrical lines
connect the CPU, RAM, and other devices.
- The motherboard holds the CPU, memory,
and bus, as well as card slots which connect peripherals to
computer (LAN card, sound card, video card, etc.).
Peripherals allow the user and computer
interact (Universal Serial Bus - USB):
- Usually computers are connected to one another